Gene therapy using nanotubes enables functional recovery in stroke
Stroke is the second most common cause of death worldwide with over 80% of all stroke cases occurring as a result of an obstruction within a blood vessel supplying blood to the brain. Ischemic or traumatic brain injury can lead to the unwanted activation of a protein, caspase 3, which contributes to brain tissue loss. This "executioner" protein can be "switched off" through the use of siRNA - a molecule that obstructs the expression of genes. The challenge of delivering siRNA in sufficient quantities to specific brain regions was achieved through the use of nanotubes injected directly into the brain by high precision neurosurgical techniques.
These extraordinary nanometer-scale tubes of graphitic carbon are among the stiffest and strongest fibres known and have a structure that can have a length to- diameter ratio as large as 28,000,000:1. Similar to a syringe at the nanometer scale, nanotubes were used to transport siRNA and silence genes in the brain in an effective manner. A combination of this promising gene therapy approach with a cutting-edge nanoscale delivery system was able to demonstrate functional recovery in stroke-ridden animals.
Nanotubes carrying siRNA against Caspase-3 were injected in the part of cerebral cortex controlling the movement of the forelimb and stroke was induced in the treated cortex. The authors found that the treatment protected neuronal cells from death and promoted recovery in a behavioural test of motor coordination that is normally affected by this type of lesion. A similar dose of siRNA administered alone, without nanotubes, was not effective on neuronal death or motor performance indicating that nanotubes were responsible for the activity and functional recovery obtained.
Professor Kostas Kostarelos, Chair of Nanomedicine and Head of the Centre for Drug Delivery Research said:
''We are delighted to see carbon nanotubes offer therapeutic options at the pre-clinical level, for debilitating and extremely challenging to intervene pathologies such as stroke. Still at very early stages towards their clinical development, carbon nanomaterials encourage us with their capabilities to transport biologically-active molecules intracellularly, even in the notoriously difficult to transfect neuronal tissue''.
The work was led by the Nanomedicine Lab at The School of Pharmacy, University of London and the Neuroscience Institute at the National Research Centre (CNR) in Pisa, Italy. It was supported partly by various European Commission FP6 and FP7 research grants and partly by an EPSRC 'Nanotechnology Grand Challenges: Healthcare' grant to Professor Kostarelos.
Previous Story: Nanosized diamonds offer new vision of hope in retinal prostheses
Next Story: Human vaccine cures prostate cancer in mice
The Institute of Nanotechnology puts significant effort into ensuring that the information provided on its news pages is accurate and up-to-date. However, we cannot guarantee absolute accuracy. Consequently, the Institute of Nanotechnology disclaims any and all responsibility for inaccuracy, omission or any kind of deficiency in relation to the news items and articles hosted herein.
- 29 July 2014Nanotechnology and tyres: Greening industry and transport
- 22 July 2014Supporting Recommendations for Future Topics in Horizon 2020
- 17 June 20142014 edition of European NanoSafety Cluster Compendium now online
- 14 May 2014Gold nanoparticles for cancer treatment
- 22 April 2014Irish Materials Research Centre (AMBER) in World First Graphene Innovation
- View All