Nanodevices: Where animal tests fail to meet testing needs


Dr Nirmala Bhogal, FRAME


Micro-doses, coupled with semi-invasive administration regimes and real-time monitoring present an entirely new problem with regard the preclinical testing of complete medical management regimes in animals.

Firstly, we have the issues that arise because of changes in formulation to accommodate micro administration and the forms of toxicity that may, as a consequence arise.

Secondly, there are issues regarding the route of administration, with delivery via intravenous routes being replaced with subcutaneous delivery.

Thirdly, the sensor itself may cause a sensitization reaction that differs in the test species and human patients.

Finally, the issue of how tests in small animals fit into the testing of completed devices remains uncertain, with a greater cause for testing in larger vertebrate species. In this presentation, these and other challenges are considered to identify the scope for using alternative tests to develop medical intervention devices.



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